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This is generally associated with church architecture. It is the main axis crossing the nave in a cruciform church. A transept is also any large division of a building that crosses the main axis at 90 degrees. In English Gothic there is often a tower over the crossing of the nave and the transept.

Dublin Cathedral - Ireland
Cathedral - Cologne - Germany
Chambery - France
Glasgow - Scotland
Cologne - Germany
Vezelay - France
St. Nicholas - Amsterdam - Netherlands