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The Machine Age

International Style and Mid-Century Modern

Origins --- Belief System --- Political Situation --- Modern Architecture

Corbusier --- Notre-Dame du Haut --- Unite D'Habitation--- Villa Savoie

Frank Lloyd Wright------Guggenheim New York---- Johnson's Wax ---

Mies Vander Rohe ---- Crown Hall--- IBM Plaza-- Federal Building

Eero Saarinen ---- TWA--- Ingalls Hockey Rink-- Law Quadrangle

Philip Johnson ---- Glass House--- Seagrams Building--

Other --- Beinecke Library---- Parkside High School---- Marina City---

Origins

Industrialization and unleashed population growth during the nineteenth century had steadily reduced the personal element in the relationship between the owning classes and their dependents, between employers and employees. The big city is both an accompaniment to and a result of industrialization. As more people poured into cities, they became dislocated. They no longer identified with the manor house and local gentry of their home towns. They were no longer type cast according to their lineage. While still maintaining their economic status, people became independent. While many critics saw this as disastrous, there were also those who saw the positive side. The new opportunities of urban living are best described by architect Raymond Hood. " New York ... is the first place in the world where a man can work within a ten minute walk of a quarter of a million people.... Think how this expands the field from which we can choose our friends, our coworkers and contacts, how easy it is to develop a constant interchange of thought."(Time Magazine, Monday December 13, 1931)

The class system was being questioned both in America, where it was all but forgotten, and also in Europe. As a result of the First World War and the Russian Revolution, people lost their faith in both God and the way their world was composed. The ruling classes lost further ground as a series of fascist or authoritarian socialist states took control of Europe. After a succession of economic crises as the new consumerism went through its toddler years, came the Second World War. The result of these events was a new society based on production and communication. People were more aware of what was happening in other cities and countries, and saw themselves as part of a larger structure than just their own culture. Their focus was international.

Belief System

Commerce, consumption and mass commun -ication replaced ordered nationalism. It was not not an abrupt change, but a gradual one. The ruling classes and the belief systems that supported their hierarchy were replaced by conglomerates based only on business practices. The lower classes were consumers and thus were lead to believe that they played a role in the new society.

Architects felt themselves to be part of a social revolution; architecture was an agency in creating a new society.

Political Situation

By the year 1900 the countries that we now identify within the European Union were in place. The First World War was the first global war. It had a devastating effect on all countries involved both economically and emotionally. By 1918 the old order had passed. From a cultural perspective, the one significant change was that photos and films of the events of the war had been taken and were shown to the civilians at home. The populations of all countries were made painfully aware of what only soldiers had once been party to. The world would never be the same again. The destruction and disillusionment of the war lead to the creation of the League of Nations. This was an ambitious attempt to impose a peaceful world order. Sadly it was unsuccessful.

Over the next twenty years Europe recovered, despite economic recessions on a fairly regular basis, as new commercial monopolies were formed and inequalities of wealth and income readjusted themselves. A major recession was experienced throughout the western world in the 1930s. The Second World War, in part the result of this economic downturn, was more destructive than the first and again involved a major portion of the world. Peace arrived in 1945 and with it, however slowly, a total change in the social structure of Europe and North America. This is reflected in the architecture of the early part of the twentieth century.

Modern Architecture

Prior to 1900, stone was the most prevalent building material. Stone enclosed a significant space. In Pyramids, the Parthenon, the Romanesque and Byzantine churches, and most variations on the Classical motifs, the interior of the stone building was the important factor. The Celts and the Greeks, in one sense, are more modern than most of the other eras. Stonehenge, the Acropolis, and the Greek theatres were all about molding the buildings with the world around them. Fitting them into the great universal grid with the movements of the sun, moon and stars all part of the equation. During the Gothic era, there was a quest for light. The windows became more important than the walls.

The twentieth century saw a complete change in almost every aspect of human life from communication to self image to sanitation, medicine, food, etc., etc., but one of the most profound changes was in the way people experienced buildings. Instead of finding shelter and solace amidst an ever changing pile of stones, the modern person found himself looking out from a climate controlled environment onto vast expanses of relatively tamed urban and rural settings. As the windows got bigger and the walls kept getting smaller, the buildings grew higher and higher so that people worked and played in a glass enclosed world.

Like the term Art Deco, which was a result of the exposition of Arts Decoratif in Paris, the term International Style was launched along with the first International Exhibition of Modern Architecture at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Critics were effusive in their condemnation of the term, but it was nonetheless used to represent the mainstream of modern architecture from the early 1920s to the late 1950s.

Prior to the Victorian era, most large buildings were a series of linked rooms connected by large doorways and sometimes passageways, but without regard to the function of the room since everything was moved into the space or out of the space by servants. The function could change. The Victorians assessed the requirements for each room and set up the size and shape accordingly. Wright planned his buildings according to axes and flow, opening up the space to make full use of sunlight and natural land features. Corbusier was trained as a painter during the Cubist era. He saw space as a collection of geometric voids that could be manipulated according to need. The floor space was opened up with pilotis. Roof gardens simply shifted the green space lost below to the roof. Windows opened everything up.

The International style saw a fundamental shift in attitude, largely due to the use of glass. Instead of being seen as 'mass', buildings began to be seen as volumes of space. Because of the increased luminosity, the reflectivity and the sheer brilliance of glass, people had an entirely new sense of being inside a building. Along with the increased interaction with the outside world came modern conveniences such as air conditioning and central heating. Buildings became much more comfortable and easier to exist in. They became machines that people could live in.

American Architects

This chapter is set up under the architects themselves and their contribution to modern architecture. What they all have in common is a dedication to a new International style, free from historicizing detail, free from any nationalist sentiment. Each architect also blazed new trails in a particular material.

Le Corbusier - (1887 - 1966) introduced the idea of urban skyrises to answer the question of urban overpopulation.

Frank Lloyd Wright (1867 - 1959) explored mass produced materials for modern homes, factories, and offices.

Mies van der Rohe created buildings with steel and glass, and nothing else.

Eero Saarinen (1910 - 1961) created fluid, dynamic buildings in reinforced concrete.


Philip Johnson (1906 - 2005 ) created exercises in transparency.

Le Corbusier (1887 - 1966)

Of all the architects of the International Style, Le Corbusier was both the most innovative and the most combative. Christened Charles Edouard Jeanneret, Le Corbusier was the pen name of this influential Swiss architect. He was a critic of architecture and social planning before he ever took part in any design himself.

Le Corbusier studied art and architecture in the first decades of the twentieth century. He was influenced by the social ideals of the Arts and Crafts movement, and the spatial ideas of the Cubists. His innovative view of homes can be seen in his Villa Savoie, a cubist view of a living space. His innovative ideas on town planning were in print many decades before L'Habitation, the answer to the question of where France's war weary heroes should find adequate housing. Multiple housing units was the answer to the most things. When he first visited New York his reaction was this "The skyscrapers of New York are too small and there are too many of them."

Le Corbusier and his associated believed in a 'white world' where everything was clean, simple lines, shining white walls, spacious airy rooms in multiple housing units. He and other planners in the International Congress of Modern Architects agreed on a plan of widely spaced apartment blocks with high rise dwelling where people could live and enjoy the park-like setting between the buildings. This was and is the concept used in apartment complexes around the world. The plan breaks down, however, when greed cuts down the airy space between apartment blocks and the green space is no longer part of the plan.

Where Alberti, Palladio and Vitruvius wrote about perfect proportion within buildings, Le Corbusier wrote about perfect buildings within an environment. In his first book, Towards a new Architecture, 1923, he outlined The five points that he found fundamental to the New Architecture : 1) free standing supports, 2) the roof garden, 3) a free plan, 4) the ribbon window, 5) the freely composed façade.

Notre-Dame du Haut Le Corbusier - 1954

As the name suggests, this bright little chapel is on a very high hill overlooking the town of Ronchamp. It was considered to be, by critics in the late twentieth century, the single greatest architectural work of the century.

The exterior has round, soft-contoured edges like the surrounding hills. The shapes are created with reinforced concrete and seem to grow out of the surrounding landscape.

Notre Dame du Haut

Notre-Dame du Haut Corbusier

The southeastern corner has a huge billowing roof that provides a canopy over an outdoor pulpit.

Corbusier approached a building like a sculpture to be inhabited. This chapel shows how the International Style brought the organic trends of the 19th century back to geometric structure. He has used some traditional church presidents, like the altar on the east, but most of the chapel is completely revolutionary.

Chapel

Notre-Dame du Haut Corbusier

The chapel has a quiet, quite darkly lit interior for inside sermons and ceremonies and an outside pulpit for open air services.

The pulpit, here, overlooks a large lawn that ends at the crest of the hill. The panoramic view of the quiet valley below and the absence of anything but nature and sky provides the type of idyllic setting found in medieval monasteries. Corbusier is using the attitudes of the early Christians to reunite God, humanity and nature.

Chapel

Notre-Dame du Haut Corbusier

The north façade is freeform concrete with irregularly shaped windows in random patterns. The door is a key element in ecclesiastical design. Here it is graced by two vertical columns that extend above the roof of the chapel. The door itself is small and almost hidden, like most of Corbusier's doors. There is no place here for pageantry, pomp and grandeur.

Corbusier's signature concrete stair graces the west elevation.

Notre Dame du Haut

Notre-Dame du Haut Corbusier

Corbusier has employed many of the traditional elements of church and chapel design, but each is transformed imaginatively for the 20th century.

The 'dome', if it can be called that, is found not under the crossing but off to the side above an intimate, semi private altar. The shape, again, is organic. More like the inside of a cave than a man made structure.

'Dome'

Unite D'Habitation Corbusier 1947-52

Le Corbusier was as famous for his writing as he was for his architecture. This multiple housing unit follows his main concept of multiple housing in compact spaces to provide large green spaces in highly populated areas. The building consists of twenty-three different apartment configurations for families and singles. The living rooms had two-storey living quarters and all have deep balconies.

 

Unite 
                  D'Habitation

Unite D'Habitation Corbusier 1947-52

Although the program of the building is elaborate, structurally it is simple: a rectilinear ferroconcrete grid, into which are slotted precast individual apartment units, like 'bottles into a wine rack' as the architect put it.

Unite 
                  D'Habitation

Unite D'Habitation
Le Corbusier 1947-52

There were many mass housing schemes in Europe since the 1920s built to alleviate severe postwar housing shortages after both the first and second world wars. The difference with this one is that it is suspended over a large parking lot supported by pylons.

Unite 
                  D'Habitation

Villa Savoie
Le Corbusier

This is the building that most people recognize as pure Le Corbusier. It has the signature pilotis. It has the ribbon window. It is clean and stark, and found in a large green area.

Compared to other buildings in this neighborhood this is a breath of fresh air. They are mostly very over done Second Empire revivals.

Villa Savoie

Villa Savoie
Le Corbusier

Moving around the house you get many varied impressions. Sometimes the walls are barriers, sometimes the walls open up to the roof garden and the sky above. The pilotis open up the ground floor and provide a covered walkway around the house.

The aim here is to integrate the people living in the space with the outdoor world surrounding it.

 

 

Villa Savoie

 

Frank Lloyd Wright (1867 - 1959)

Frank Lloyd Wright's genius spanned many decades. His fertile mind grasped and explored the possibilities of most stylistic and material changes in the early 20th century. He experimented with thin-slab design well before the Rockefeller center's innovative design was built. In fact he designed two large skyscrapers, the Chicago Mile High Skyscraper and the Luxfer Prism Skyscraper, neither of which was ever built. Wrights forte was in shorter buildings that hugged the ground.

 

Production and mass production an important influence on the age. It was felt that craftsmanship and ornament were bourgeois qualities that could be easily dispensed with. International architects, particularly Wright, became fascinated with large sheets of glass, broadloom and plywood that would allow everyone the opportunity to possess quality architecture. The later phases of his career saw Wright fascinated both with materials and the machines that produced them. Reinforced concrete was also a major material as can be seen in the Guggenheim.

 

Johnson's Wax Building 1936-49

Unlike the Prairie buildings, this has curved fluid shapes.

 

 

http://www.youtube.com/

watch?v=NJi5IcNtml4

Johnson's 
                  Wax

Guggenheim Museum New York

The Guggenheim family has commissioned many art galleries around the world. Wright was reluctant to take this commission because he hated dense urban areas and the historicising of the New York buildings. He attempted to merge the Art Gallery with Central Park making it as different from the rectangular buildings in the neighborhood as possible. The gallery starts on the top floor . You then descend walking around the winding inverted cone towards the bottom.

Guggenheim

Reinforced Concrete Stair

This staircase, and many others like it, were inspired by the work of both Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier.

Carson Pirie Scott

Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe

Prior to the 1930s, the cutting edge of modernist design in Europe was found in Germany, particularly Berlin in the studio of Peter Behrens. Walter Gropius, Mies van der Rohe and Charles Edouard Jeanneret all worked together there. Gropius went on to found The Bauhaus Jeanneret went on to become Le Corbusier. Mies van der Rohe became involved in many modern movements, both political and philosophical, plunging head first into modern architecture. His association with communism and socialism made him unpopular with the Nazis, and he escaped to the USA.

Mies van der Rohe embraced the new International style and everything it stood for. His position at the Illinois Institute of Technology allowed him to explore the possibilities to their end point. As Boorstin said,he made the Architecture school there "a nursery of modernism."

Glass was an ancient material. The Egyptians had it. The Romans used it for windows, it was every culture's favorite material for libation vessels. New techniques in making glass revolutionized the inside of buildings. Plate glass became available in the late 19th century. Mies van der Rohe took the plate glass and used it not as an addition to a wall, but as the wall itself.

Crown Hall
Mies Van der Rohe 1956

Mies van der Rohe was director of the Department of Architecture at the Illinois Institute of Technology. While there he designed this building, the School of Architecture building.

It is one of the most significant buildings in modern architecture, a low building composed of steel and glass. The I Beams (W Sections) used as columns that make up the structure are not hidden by any adornment or flourishes.

Crown Hall

Mies Van der Rohe

In fact they are not hidden by anything. They are exposed. The spandrels are also steel, the only other material are the large planes of glass.

Crown Hall

IBM Plaza
Mies Van der Rohe

The IBM Plaza along the river in Chicago uses the same materials for a completely different effect. Instead of a low building, clean and pristine, yet nicely nestled within the landscape, this is an unbroken vertical line, quite the opposite of the more theatrical Chrysler Building and Empire State Building.

 

IBM 
                  Plaza

Federal Building
Mies Van Der Rohe 1964

The Federal Building in downtown Chicago is another structure with unadorned I Beams disappearing into the sky. It is part of a triplex of buildings in the Federal Center, just two blocks from the Fisher Building.

Federal 
                  Building

Federal Building Mies Van Der Rohe 1964

The building is very similar to the IBM Plaza, distinguishable only by the overall proportion and the band of smaller windows on the lower half. In this case the building has a large plaza underneath to provide light and air to pedestrians.

Federal 
                  Building

Federal Building Mies Van Der Rohe 1964

The building is very similar to the IBM Plaza, distinguishable only by the overall proportion and the band of smaller windows on the lower half. In this case the building has a large plaza underneath to provide light and air to pedestrians.

Federal 
                  Building

 

Eero Saarinen (1910 - 1961)

Eero Saarinen embodied everything that was good about Mid-century Modern. His designs are supple, swirling, imaginative and cheerful. His furniture is as famous as his buildings. Tulip chairs and Grasshopper lounges, out of fashion in the 1990s, have become prime pickings at antique fairs and garage sales. Thankfully the new craze for all things mid-century is saving more than the chairs.

Like glass, concrete had been around for centuries. It bears the stigma of the commonplace since it can be used in paving slabs, sidewalks, lintels, the list is endless. Concrete was at the base of the Roman revolution in architecture when they discovered the pliable nature and versatility of potsolano. The twentieth century designers experienced a similar revolution when they developed reinforced and then prestressed concrete. Saarinen's work is among the best of the mid-century architects exploring this material.

Saarinen TWA Building 1962

This is an airline terminal, first made for TWA, recently remodeled by the new owners Jet Blue. Good work Jet Blue. Saarinen wanted to reflect some of the excitement of air travel, which was a relatively new experience for most people. The building is soaring and birdlike, at once dynamic and symbolic .

TWA Building

Saarinen TWA building 1962

The building is made from reinforced concrete. Saarinen's structural engineer should get as much credit for this as he does.

TWA Building

TWA Building

Saarinen's use of reinforced concrete was ground breaking. The forms swerve and roll, the edges are hard and pointed, the inside of the terminal is like walking around inside a large wave.

The Roman use of concrete for arches vaults and domes is here expanded for the creation of free-form caverns and tunnels, shapes that people could find in nature but had never been possible for man to reproduce until the 20th century.

TWA Building

Ingalls Hockey Rink
Yale University

1959

Like most of Saarinen's work, this illustrates a mixture of compressive forms in the arches and tensile forms in the cable network that keeps the roof suspended. This organic shape has influenced many modern architects such as Douglas Cardinal and Frank Ghery.

Chrysler Building

Ingalls Hockey Rink
Yale University

1959

The swooping front entrance flooded with light is a welcoming sight for evening players.

Chrysler Building

Ingalls Hockey Rink
Yale University

1959

A central .... I'm going to get Olynyk to help me write this - he knows more about it than I do.

Chrysler Building

Ingalls Hockey Rink
Yale University

1959

Ribs

Chrysler Building

Library - Laird Bell Law Quadrangle University of Chicago Saarinen 1960

A beautiful building, a gorgeous setting, and a good story to boot. This building has just been recycled, after many feared it would be torn down, and the remodeling of it has saved the University of Chicago tens of millions of dollars.

http://www.chicagotribune.com/
features/arts/chi-law-school-
0713jul13,0,4285295.story

Saving buildings is often MUCH more cost effective than tearing them down. Politicians like to build new buildings to pump up their egos and lead to reelection, no other reason.

Law Quadrangle

Laird Bell Law Quadrangle University of Chicago Saarinen 1960

The building is very different from most of Saarinen's other work in that there are no sweeping curves and no flamboyant arches.

Law Quadrangle

 

Philip Johnson (1906 - 2005)

Philip Johnson's career spanned an even greater number of years and changes than Frank Lloyd Wright's and in many ways he was as influential during those years as F.L. Wright was, but he is appreciated by a completely different set of architects and critics.

Johnson founded the Department of Architecture and Design in 1930. He named the International style in 1932,and he was the first architect to win the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 1979. The Pritzker Prize is a virtual who's who of late twentieth century architecture.

Like Le Corbusier, Johnson was a curator and a critic before he ever got around to becoming an architect. His legacy is minimalism. His work reflects the influence of both Corbusier and Mies van der Rohe. During the "International" phase of his career, Johnson represented the mainstream of architecture. His practice was busy creating corporate architecture which was mostly black, like the Seagram Building that he designed with Mies van der Rohe, and large theatres, museums and pavilions. His most important work is the Glass House, the penultimate act of minimalism, which he lived in for 56 years. No one is surprised that he could not get a woman to live there with him.

Glass House

Philip Johnson

Philip Johnson lived in this house for 56 years. It is part of an exquisite group of buildings set into the colourful hillside of New Canaan CT. In essence, the walls of the house are the surrounding property. Close to the house is a gallery where Johnson stored his private art collection. The only painting in the house was a Pousin.

Glass House

Glass House

Philip Johnson

The side view shows the construction method. Steel and glass were the only materials used. The building is slab on grade. It is heated by radiant floor heating.

In the background on the right is the art gallery. It is a concrete building made in the shape of a clover leaf. The building is constructed of concrete and buried beneath a grass covered burm so as to avoid being noticeable from the house. Paintings are stored on large rotating panels much like those used to display rugs. The entrance is through a covered walkway hidden in the hillside.

Glass House

Glass House

Philip Johnson

The living room, decorated with with Barcelona Chairs, offers an unobstructed view of the valley and across the hills.

Glass House

Glass House

Pavilion and Climbing Sculpture

Within the valley behind the house can be found a sculpture, 30 feet in height, that is climbable.

A pond at the bottom of the valley provides a beautiful setting for an entertainment pavilion or follie.

Glass House

Glass House - Bathroom

Philip Johnson

The bathroom forms a central cylinder in the house. There is a fireplace on the other side of it opening out onto the living room.

Glass House

Glass House - Swimming Pool

Philip Johnson

The 'United States with its remarkable lack of public control and available money provided the opportunity for some of the most spectacular achievement of the Modern Movement' [Nuttgens, p. 268]

 

Much of this beautiful minimalism would no longer be legal in North America.

Glass House

Glass House

Sculpture Studio

Along a path, beside the picture gallery, is a building created to house Johnson's collection of modern sculpture. The building is designed after the Palace of Knossus in Crete.

Glass House

Glass House

Sculpture Studio

Like the Palace of Knossus, the top is open and the sides are completely enclosed. KNossus was built into the hillside for protection. Staircases allowed access to the rooms below. Here a brilliant use of skylights allows an ever changing pattern of stripes across the walls of the studio.

Glass House

Seagram Building
New York 1958
Johnson and Mies van der Rohe

The Seagram Building illustrates perfectly the International style. It is a building composed of straight lines, flat planes, stark surfaces in metal and glass. Later generations found this represented the same tyranny that the Baroque artists worked under. Late Renaissance architects turned to the Baroque Late International architects, even Johnson himself, turned to Post Modernism.

Seagram Building

Other Materials and Methods

The innovations done by the five architects above were all ground breaking in their own way and had a lasting impact on architecture. There are a great many other innovative materials and

innovative uses of ancient materials that were experimented with in the first decades of the 20th century. A few are listed below.

Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library

The building was designed by Gordon Bunshaft, of the firm Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, to house one of the largest collections of rare books and manuscripts in the world. It currently houses over 500,000 rare books and over one million manuscripts.

The exterior is constructed of a concrete and steel grid that contains squares of Vermont marble so thinly sliced that they are translucent. During the day, the interior is lit by a warm golden glow as the sun shines against the marble. At night, the building has a gentle, otherworldly glow.

Beinecke Library

Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library

All four façades of the building are the same. The books are housed in a white marble box lifted off the ground on four large piers. None of the façades are interrupted either by windows or by doors.

There is a glass shell around the entrance which is underneath the box.

 

Beinecke Library

Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library

This is the door of the library.

 

Beinecke Library

Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library

This building marks a sharp contrast to other Skidmore, Owing and Merrill corporate structures like the Sears Tower in Chicago, currently the tallest building in the USA.

Beinecke Library

Parkside High School Dundas
Lloyd Kyles 1959

Reinforced concrete was used in many public buildings throughout the fifties and sixties. Parkside High School won an international award for innovation in structural design in 1959. It was the first pre-caste concrete structure in Canada. The outside walls and spandrels were precast reinforced concrete sections with marble chips inserted in the precasting, Kyles' original idea. The reversed arch concrete roof was poured in place - in situ.

Parkside 
                  High School

Marina City
Bertrand Goldberg Associates 1964 1967

The two Marina towers were the highest concrete structures in the world and the tallest residential structures in Chicago. The 60 storey, circular, petal ringed towers are an interesting mixture of Wrights organic and Sullivan's lack of historicizing in a Corbusier inspired high rise apartment.

"Our time...has made us aware that forces and strains flow in patterns which have little relationship to the rectilinear concepts of the Victorian engineers. We have become aware of the almost alive quality which our structures achieve, and we seek the forms which give the most life to our structures."— Bertrand Goldberg. from Paul Heyer. Architects on Architecture: New Directions in America. p49, 50-51.

The key to this design is the use of sculpted steel. Inspired by the automotive industry which had 60 years of practice making cars into ever more aerodynamic shapes, Goldberg and his associates experimented with different shapes of steel finding that curved steel had qualities uite unlike flat steel. There was more strength which lead to much different applications.

Marina 
                  City

Marina City
Bertrand Goldberg Associates 1964 1967

The towers are a tribute to an economy based on the car. There are four hundred and fifty apartments and four hundred and fifty places for cars. The residences start on the twenty-first floor which allows for a good view for most apartments. Interestingly, there is a shared marina for only seven hundred small craft. In the spirit of Sullivan's Auditorium building, these towers have mixed occupancy. There are stores, restaurants, exercise areas for swimming and skating, plus both t theatre and an auditorium.

This building looks as if it houses the futuristic family from the 70s, the Jetsons, and it leads us into a whole different realm of design.

Marina 
                  City

Books

Boorstin, Daniel, The Creators, New York : Random House, 1992

Heyer,Paul Architects on Architecture: New Directions in America, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1991

Nuttgens,Patrick, The Story of Architecture, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, 1983

Sullivan, Louis, "The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered", Lippincott's magazine (March 1896)

Chicago Skyscrapers, Chicago Tribune,(January 13 1889)

Films

The Clock, Robert Walker, Judy Garland,1945 - one of the best sets in the movie business.

Eight Men Out, John Cusack, Clifton James, 1988

Frank Lloyd Wright, Ken Burns, 1998

Illuminata, John Turturro,1998

Legends of the Fall, Brad Pitt, Anthony Hopkins, 1995

Skylark, Glenn Close, Christopher Walken, 1993

The Color Purple, Danny Glover, Whoopi Goldberg,1985

The Golden Bowl, Kate Beckinsale, James Fox, Anjelica Huston, 2000

The House of Mirth, Gillian Anderson, 2000

 

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