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Welcome to the History of Architecture AR173 Notes

------Example of Rendering for 'House' assignment___

1. The Ancient World

ancient.htm

8000 BC to 500 BC

PYRAMIDS, MEGALITHS, COLUMNS

Architects

Imhotep 2650 BC

Stonehenge
Pagan Calendar
Megaliths
3100 BC

Ishtar Gate
Babylon

Persepolis in Persia
Eclectic marketplace in the Tigris Euphrates basin
influences from Greece, the far east, Egypt
600 BC

Egypt 3200 - 1100 BC
Palace of Zozer - 2650 BC - Imhotep architect
Pyramid to Amen Re - 1400 BC - City of the Dead
Deir el Bahari - Queen Hatshepsut - 1480 BC

Minoan 3000 - 1400 BC
Palace of Knossos - Minoan 2,000 BC Crete Bronze Age Culture,Minoan after Minos, Downward tapering columns.

Mycenaen
Citadel Mycenae 1400 BC

The Lion Gate

Vocabulary
abacus
capital
column
megalith
pyramid
pylons
relief
ziggurat

2. Greek Architecture

Greece.htm

800 BBC to 323 BC

ORDERS,DORIC, IONIC, CORINTHIAN, TEMPLE FRONT

Architects

Phidias

Classical Greece
Temple of Hera Olympia 6th century BC

Treasury of Athenians at Delphi 500 BC

Golden Age - Athens 500 - 400 BC

Parthenon by Iktinos

Erectheum

Epidauros 450 BC

Temple of Athena Nike

Olympia

Theatres

http://www.mala.bc.ca/~johnstoi/

Vocabulary for Greek

acanthus
architrave
caryatid
Corinthian
dentil
Doric
echinus
egg-and-dart
entablature
freize
Ionic
metope
order
pediment
triglyph
volute

3. Roman Architecture

Rome.htm

400 BC - 300 AD

ARCHES, BASILICAS, CONCRETE

Triumphal Arches

Arch of Titus AD 90
Arch of Septimus Severus 203 AD

Temples

Pantheon 120 AD

Amphitheatres

Coliseum

Theatres

Merida

Villas

Hadrian's

Aquaducts

Pont du Gard

Vocabulary for Roman

arch
barrel-vault
basilica
composite
dome
engaged column
extrados
intrados
flute
keystone
medallion
rotunda
shaft
spring
Tuscan
vault
voussoir

4. Byzantine

Early Christian and Byzantine

From Constantine to Charlemagne

330 - 900 AD

PENDENTIVES, BARREL VAULTS, RAMPARTS, MOSAICS

Architects

Anthemius
Isodorus

Buildings

Ravenna - St. Apollinare in Classe 550

Istanbul - Hagia Sophia 537

Venice - San Marco 1094

Vocabulary for Byzantine

arcade
campanile
gateway
lunette
mosaic
pendentive

5. Medieval II

Romanesque

From Charlemagne to the Crusades

900 - 1300 AD

TRANSCEPT, FORTRESS, TYMPANUM

Architects

Gislibertus

Romanesque

Pisa Cathedral 1063 - 1092

Florence - San Miniato 12th century

Worms Cathedral 1110 - 1180

Vézelay Cathedral 12th century

Durham Cathedral

walled towns and ramparts

Vocabulary for Romanesque

barrel vault
battlement
crenelation
dichromatic brick/marble
fortress
impost
rampart
tympanum
vault

Eastern Influences

The East - not in AR173 outline Fall 09

From Mohammed to the Renaissance

700 - 1600 AD

ARABESQUE, MUQARNAS, REFLECTING POOL

Influences from the East

Iran - Shiraz, Estafan 700 - 1600

Granada - Alhambra 1100

Cordoba - Great Mosque 780 -1000
France

Vocabulary for Eastern

arabesque
muqarnas
reflecting pool

6. Gothic Architecture

Gothic

1000 - 1400

LANCET ARCH, RIB VAULT FLYING BUTTRESS

Beginnings

St. Denis 1100 - 1300

Gothic in England

Salisbury 1220 - 1380
Wells Cathedral 1180 - 1425
Cambridge Kings College Chapel 16th century
residences

Gothic in France
Notre Dame de Paris - 1163 - 1250
Chartres Cathedral - 1194 - 1260
chateuax and residences

Gothic in Italy
Milan 1387 - 1450

Gothic in Germany
Cologne 1248 -

Vocabulary for Gothic


apse
boss
buttress
clerestory
corbels
flying buttress
gargoyle
groin vault
half-timbered
hoodmold
impost
lancet arch
moulding
nave
rib
rose window
tracery
transept
Venetian Gothic

7. Early Renaissance

Early Renaissance.htm

1350 - 1500

DOME, FRESCOE, PALAZZO

Architects

Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 - 1446)
Leone Battista Alberti (1404 - 72)
Donato Bramante(1444 - 1514)

Michellozzo (1396 - 1472)

Buildings
Florence Duomo - Brunelleschi - 1420 - 1461
Pazzi Chapel - Brunelleschi - 1445
Ospedale de innocenti - Brunelleschi - 1445
S. Lorenzo Florence 1421 - 1460
Palazzo de Parte Guelfa
Convento di San Marco- Michellozzo
Palazzo Medici
Palazzo Riccardi
Uffizzi
Palazzo Strozzi
Mantua - San Andrea - Alberti
Milan - Santa Maria della Grazie 1465 rebuilt in 1492 - Bramante
Tempietto - Bramante - 1502

Vocabulary for Renaissance
belvedere
coffer
courtyard
crest
dome
fresco
grille
medallion
palazzo
roundel
rustication
scalloping

 

Regular filter


 

 

8. High and Late Renaissance

High Renaissance

1500 - 1650

BROKEN PEDIMENTS, SCULPTURE, PALLADIAN WINDOW

Architects
Donato Bramante(1444 - 1514)
Michelangelo (1396 - 1472)
Raphael 1483 - 1520

Giacomo di Vignola 1507 - 1773

Palladio 1508 - 1572
Pierre Lescot
Catherine de Medici

Inigo Jones 1573 - 1652

High Renaissance in Italy
Tempietto - 1502 - Bramante
St. Eligio - 1509 - Raphael
Palazzo Farnese
St. Peters - everybody
Il Gesu - Vignola

Renaissance in France
Fontainbleau 1528 - 1540
La Louvre
Chateau Chambord
Chateau Chenonceau

Renaissance in England
Wilton House
White Hall

Late Renaissance

San Georgio Maggiore
Villa Rotunda

Vocabulary for Renaissance

acropodium
cartouche
colonnade
courtyard
gallery
machicolation
mullion
muntin
niche
portal
portico
spandrel
trompe l'oeil

 

9. Baroque

Baroque

1600 - 1800

PLASTIC FORM, MASCARON, VISUAL JOKE

Architects
Carlo Maderna (1556 - 1629)
Francesco Borromini (1599 - 1667)
Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini (1598 - 1680)
Francois Mansard 1598 - 1666
Louis Le Vau 1612 - 1670
Christopher Wren 1632-1723

Baroque in Italy 1600 - 1700
St. Peter's

San Andrea al Quirinale - Bernini
S. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane 1665 - 67 Borromini
St. Agnese - Borromini -1652 - 1666
Palazzo Barberini - Bernini Borromin i- 1628-38 Santa Maria della Salute Venice - Longhena -1676

Baroque Outside Italy 1550 - 1700

Russia
Hermitage

France
Versaille 1675
Institute of France 1662
Chateau Blois 1635

England
Trinity College
St. Paul's Cathedral - 1672

Georgian Architecture - Kings George of England, I, II, III and IV.

Vocabulary
baluster
Chateau
chimney
dormer
fanlight
gardens
Georgian
Mansard
stair
quoins
sash windows
transom

-----10. Iron, Steel, and the Industrial Revolution

Industrial

1800 - 1900

IRON, STEEL, ROLLED GLASS

Architects/Engineers

Thomas Telford (1757 - 1834)
Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806 - 59)

Structures
Iron Bridge over Severn River - Telford 1797
Temple Meads Railway Station- Brunel
St. Pancras station 1863-7
Paddington Station

The Functional Tradition
Eiffel Tower

Galleria Vittorio Emmanuel

Materials

www.ontarioarchitecture.com/brick.htm

www.ontarioarchitecture.com/stone.htm

Vocabulary for Industrial

parapet

cantilever

building skeleton

know vocabulary for brick and stone

10B. Classical and Gothic Revivals, Ecclectic

Revivals

TEMPLE FRONT, ORNAMENT

Architects

Ange-Jacques Gabriel (1698 - 1792)
John Wood the Elder (1704 - 1754)
John Wood the Younger (1728-1782)
Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (1812-1852)

Buildings
Le Panthéon


Petite Trianon


Bath - Royal Crescent


Bath - Royal Crescent


London - Parliament Buildings

Vocabulary for Revivals

veneer

Temple Front

you know all the rest!!

Return to individuality and Craftsmanship

ArtsandCrafts

GLASS, SKELETONS, CURTAIN WALLS

Architects
Antonio Gaudi 1852 - 1926
Charles Rennie MacIntosh 1868 - 1928
Hector Guimard 1867 - 1942
Philip Webb 1831 - 1915
Victor Horta 1861 - 1947
Otto Wagner 1841 - 1918
Edwin Lutyens 1869 - 1944

Buildings
Castle Beranger - Guimard - 1890
Casa Mila - Gaudi - 1910
Casa Batlo - Gaudi - 1907
Park Guel - Gaudi - 1910
Glasgow School of Art - Macintosh - 1909
Hill House - Macintosh - 1902
Willow Tea Rooms - Macintosh - 1903 Horta House - Horta - 1898
Red House - Webb - 1859
Hotel Guimard - Guimard - 1912
Majolica House - Wagner - 1899
Tassel House - Horta - 1892
The Salutation - Luytens - 1911

Antonio Gaudi -

Vocabulary for Modern

reinforced concrete
curtain wall

11. American Architecture and the Chicago School

American

1750 - 1920

AXIS, HIGH RISE, PRAIRIE SCHOOL

Architects

Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)

William LeBaron Jenny (1832 - 1907)

Henry Hobson Richardson (1838-1886)

Louis Sullivan (1856 - 1924)

Frank Lloyd Wright (1867 - 1959)

Buildings
Monticello - Jefferson
Home Insurance Building - Jenny - 1885
Fischer Building
Glessner House - Richardson
Great Western- Richardson
Crane Librarie- Richardson
Austin Hall - Richardson

Carson Pirie Scott - 1901 - Louis Sullivan
Auditorium Building - 1901 - Louis Sullivan
Heller House - Frank Lloyd Wright
Unity Temple - Frank Lloyd Wright
Robie House - Frank Lloyd Wright
Heurtley House- Frank Lloyd Wright
Susan Laurence Dana House - Frank Lloyd Wright - 1903

Vocabulary for Chicago

high rise
overhang
steel

12. The Machine Age

The International Style and Mid- Century Modern

Machine Age

GLASS, SKELETONS, CURTAIN WALLS, REINFORCED CONCRETE

Architects
Frank Lloyd Wright (1867 - 1959)
Le Corbusier (1887 - 1966)
Mies van der Rohe (1886 - 1969)
Philip Johnson (1906 - 2005)
Eero Saarinen (1910 - 1961)

Buildings
Notre-Dame du Haut


Villa Savoie


Guggenheim Museum
Crown Hall
TWA
Glass House
Beinecke Library


13. Post Modernism and Sustainable Design

1970 - 2010

EXOSKELETON, SUSTAINABLE DESIGN,

ADAPTIVE REUSE

Architects
Arthur Erickson (1924 -2009)
Frank Gehry (1929 -
I.M.Pei (1917 -
Norman Foster (1935 -

In Ontario

Buildings
Canadian Embassy - Erikson
Guggenheim Bilbao - Gehry
Pyramid - I.M. Pei
Glass Hallway - Foster
Gerkin- Foster

pritzkerprize.com/gehry/gehrypg.htm

Vocabulary for Modern

adaptive reuse

curtain wall


diagrid


reflecting pool

Sustainable

 

 

Canadian Architecture

For a list of excellent books on Canadian architecture see the annotated bibliography in

www.ontarioarchitecture.com/about.html

 

 

Polarised filter

The following students will, of course, get huge bonus marks. So will the building.

Topics for #3

1. How did the patronage of St. Peters Cathedral in Rome affect its design?

2. Did Persian Architecture have any influence in the 20th century?

3. What is significant about the front door in Arts and Crafts architecture?

4. What is the significance of geometry in the Petit Trianon?

5. What is the difference between the Art Nouveau movement and the Machine Age?

6. Is stone the only material used in Gothic designs?

7. What is the difference between Roman stone figures and Romanesque stone figures on architectural monuments?

8. Of what importance was solar power in Frank Lloyd Wright's designs?

9. How has Greek architecture affected the design of buildings in Hamilton Ontario? Pick at least three buildings to compare.

10. What influenced the design of the Bristol Palace in England?

11. How did glass affect the designs of I.M. Pei?

12. What is Victorian Gothic?

13. How does the Tuscan Order compare with the Doric Order?

14. Why is Romanesque architecture more suited to civic and commercial property, in the revival form, than residential?

 

This is a rendering.

Presbyterian Church